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Thu 23rd of November 2017

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IAS EXPRESS - Free Download

2017 Medicine Nobel Prize for work on biological clocks
  • Key points:
  • 1.The laureates are Professors Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michal Young 
  • 2.They found a new gene that controls the normal daily biological rhythm
  • 3.This 'clock' affects hormone levels, sleep, body temperature and metabolism
  • 4.Research explains how plants, animals and humans synchronise their rhythm with the Earth's rotation
  • The Nobel Prize for Medicine has been awarded to three American geneticists for discoveries about the body's daily rhythms. The laureates are Professors Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michal Young. Professor Robash is a researcher at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, Young at New York's Rockefeller University and Hall is at the University of Maine.
  • WHAT DID THEY DO?
  • Life on Earth is adapted to the rotation of our planet. For many years we have known that living organisms, including humans, have an internal, biological clock that helps them anticipate and adapt to the regular rhythm of the day. The research team were able to look inside our biological clock to examine its inner workings. Their discoveries explain how plants, animals and humans adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronised with the Earth's revolutions. 
  • Life on Earth is adapted to the rotation of our planet. The leaves of the mimosa plant open towards the sun during day but close at dusk, for example
  • Using fruit flies as a model organism, this year's Nobel laureates isolated a gene that controls the normal daily biological rhythm. They showed that this gene encodes a protein that accumulates in the cell during the night, and is then degraded during the day. Subsequently, they identified additional protein components of this machinery, exposing the mechanism governing the self-sustaining clockwork inside the cell. We now recognise that biological clocks function by the same principles in cells of other multicellular organisms, including humans. 
  • Our inner clock adapts our physiology to the dramatically different phases of the day. It helps to regulate sleep patterns, feeding behaviour, hormone release, blood pressure, and body temperature
  • Our inner clock adapts our physiology to the dramatically different phases of the day. The clock regulates critical functions such as behaviour, hormone levels, sleep, body temperature and metabolism. Our well-being is affected when there is a temporary mismatch between our external environment and this internal biological clock. One example of this is when we travel across several time zones and experience 'jet lag'. There are also indications that chronic misalignment between our lifestyle and the rhythm dictated by our inner timekeeper is associated with increased risk for various diseases.
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Prelims Question of the Day

With reference to 'Natural Rate of Unemployment', consider the following statements.

1. It is the level of unemployment in an economy that is just consistent with a stable rate of Inflation.

2. It is the unemployment that prevails when all markets in the economy are in equilibrium.

 

(a)1 and 2

(b)2 only

(c)1 only

(d)None of the above

Mains Question of the Day

1.GS-No party in power can afford to ignore Directive Principles of State Policy. Comment.(200 Words)

2.Political Science - Explain the role of non state actors, like IMF, World Bank, European Union and MNCs, in modulating and transforming the broad dynamics of international relations. (250 Words).

3.SOCIOLOGY - What is the impact of Globalization on the structure and mobilization of the working class in India? (250 Words).

Sociology - Thinkers