Tue 21st of November 2017
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Exposure to air pollution on the way to school can have damaging effects on children’s cognitive development and reduce their working memory, a study has found. The study published in the journal Environmental Pollution , led by researchers from the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) in Spain, assessed the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon during the walking commute to and from school.
The findings of an earlier study had shown that 20% of a child’s daily dose of black carbon — a pollutant directly related to traffic — is inhaled during urban commutes. “The results of studies have shown that these short exposures to very high concentrations of pollutants can have a disproportionately high impact on health,” said Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, researcher at ISGlobal. The study was carried out in Barcelona and enrolled over 1,200 children aged from seven to 10, from 39 schools, all of whom walked to school.
Statistical analysis of the findings showed that exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon was associated with a reduction in the growth of working memory — an interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 and black carbon levels was associated with a decline of 4.6% and 3.9%, respectively, in expected annual growth of working memory.
Prelims Question of the Day
With reference to 'Natural Rate of Unemployment', consider the following statements.
1. It is the level of unemployment in an economy that is just consistent with a stable rate of Inflation.
2. It is the unemployment that prevails when all markets in the economy are in equilibrium.
(a)1 and 2
(d)None of the above
Mains Question of the Day
1.GS-No party in power can afford to ignore Directive Principles of State Policy. Comment.(200 Words)
2.Political Science - Explain the role of non state actors, like IMF, World Bank, European Union and MNCs, in modulating and transforming the broad dynamics of international relations. (250 Words).
3.SOCIOLOGY - What is the impact of Globalization on the structure and mobilization of the working class in India? (250 Words).